PowerDNS is one of the famous DNS software after BIND, which unlike BIND comes with many backends like MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite3 and etc. It can run both as an authoritive nameserver or as a recursor.
The latest PowerDNS version is 4.2 at the time of writing this article. This article will cover how to install PowerDNS on CentOS systems. If you wish to install on Debian systems, follow this article.
In order to use MySQL as a backend you will have to install MySQL/MariaDB server. I will use MariaDB server for this installation. To install MariaDB on your system you will have to enable EPEL repository first. To do this use below command.
CentOS 7 #yum install epel-release CentOS 8 #dnf install epel-release
Now you can install MariaDB server using this command.
CentOS 7 #yum install mariadb-server CentOS 8 #dnf install mariadb-server
Now we will enable and start MariaDB with below commands so that it will start automatically on boot.
#systemctl enable --now mariadb.service
Now we will configure and secure our MariaDB server.
After running this command few prompts will pop up like this. Follow instructions carefully.
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank, so you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): Press ENTER OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation. Set root password? [Y/n] Y New password: ← Set New Password Re-enter new password: ← Repeat Above Password Password updated successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y ← Choose “y” to disable that user ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] n ← Choose “n” for no ... skipping. By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y ← Choose “y” for yes - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y ← Choose “y” for yes ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MariaDB!
So that our backend MariaDB server installation is complete now, we can move forward to install PowerDNS. Run below command in terminal.
CentOS 7 #yum install pdns pdns-backend-mysql CentOS 8 #dnf install pdns pdns-backend-mysql
Now we will create database where our zone records will be stored.
#mysql -u root -p
Now it will prompt for password. We will enter the password which we used during mysql_secure_installation. After logging in paste below MySQL command in terminal and press ENTER button.
CREATE DATABASE powerdns;
Afer creating database we will select the database “powerdns” using below MySQL command.
Now we will create all necessary tables for storing our zones.
CREATE TABLE domains ( id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, name VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL, master VARCHAR(128) DEFAULT NULL, last_check INT DEFAULT NULL, type VARCHAR(6) NOT NULL, notified_serial INT UNSIGNED DEFAULT NULL, account VARCHAR(40) CHARACTER SET 'utf8' DEFAULT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (id) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE UNIQUE INDEX name_index ON domains(name); CREATE TABLE records ( id BIGINT AUTO_INCREMENT, domain_id INT DEFAULT NULL, name VARCHAR(255) DEFAULT NULL, type VARCHAR(10) DEFAULT NULL, content VARCHAR(64000) DEFAULT NULL, ttl INT DEFAULT NULL, prio INT DEFAULT NULL, disabled TINYINT(1) DEFAULT 0, ordername VARCHAR(255) BINARY DEFAULT NULL, auth TINYINT(1) DEFAULT 1, PRIMARY KEY (id) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE INDEX nametype_index ON records(name,type); CREATE INDEX domain_id ON records(domain_id); CREATE INDEX ordername ON records (ordername); CREATE TABLE supermasters ( ip VARCHAR(64) NOT NULL, nameserver VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL, account VARCHAR(40) CHARACTER SET 'utf8' NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (ip, nameserver) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE TABLE comments ( id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, domain_id INT NOT NULL, name VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL, type VARCHAR(10) NOT NULL, modified_at INT NOT NULL, account VARCHAR(40) CHARACTER SET 'utf8' DEFAULT NULL, comment TEXT CHARACTER SET 'utf8' NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (id) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE INDEX comments_name_type_idx ON comments (name, type); CREATE INDEX comments_order_idx ON comments (domain_id, modified_at); CREATE TABLE domainmetadata ( id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, domain_id INT NOT NULL, kind VARCHAR(32), content TEXT, PRIMARY KEY (id) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE INDEX domainmetadata_idx ON domainmetadata (domain_id, kind); CREATE TABLE cryptokeys ( id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, domain_id INT NOT NULL, flags INT NOT NULL, active BOOL, published BOOL DEFAULT 1, content TEXT, PRIMARY KEY(id) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE INDEX domainidindex ON cryptokeys(domain_id); CREATE TABLE tsigkeys ( id INT AUTO_INCREMENT, name VARCHAR(255), algorithm VARCHAR(50), secret VARCHAR(255), PRIMARY KEY (id) ) Engine=InnoDB CHARACTER SET 'latin1'; CREATE UNIQUE INDEX namealgoindex ON tsigkeys(name, algorithm);
Finally we will run some more MySQL commands to automatically remove orphan records.
/* Using this SQL causes Mysql to create foreign keys on your database. This will make sure that no records, comments or keys exists for domains that you already removed. This is not enabled by default, because we're not sure what the consequences are from a performance point of view. If you do have feedback, please let us know how this affects your setup. Please note that it's not possible to apply this, before you cleaned up your database, as the foreign keys do not exist. */ ALTER TABLE records ADD CONSTRAINT `records_domain_id_ibfk` FOREIGN KEY (`domain_id`) REFERENCES `domains` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE; ALTER TABLE comments ADD CONSTRAINT `comments_domain_id_ibfk` FOREIGN KEY (`domain_id`) REFERENCES `domains` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE; ALTER TABLE domainmetadata ADD CONSTRAINT `domainmetadata_domain_id_ibfk` FOREIGN KEY (`domain_id`) REFERENCES `domains` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE; ALTER TABLE cryptokeys ADD CONSTRAINT `cryptokeys_domain_id_ibfk` FOREIGN KEY (`domain_id`) REFERENCES `domains` (`id`) ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE;
Now we will quit MariaDB by typing this command.
Finally we will configure PowerDNS with necessary settings to run with MySQL as a backend. You will find the config file in /etc/pdns/pdns.conf Open with Vim/Nano and look for these lines.
################################# # launch Which backends to launch and order to query them in # # launch=
Add these lines after above lines.
launch=gmysql gmysql-host=localhost gmysql-user=powerdns gmysql-password=user-pass gmysql-dbname=powerdns
Now we will enable and start PowerDNS service using below command.
#systemctl enable --now pdns.service
If you followed this tutorial this far you’ve successfully completed PowerDNS installation. Your installation is currently up and running. To know more about PowerDNS you can visit this link PowerDNS documentation.